Found hidden away on a shelf in the book shop of the Tel Aviv Museum: "Tasteful Color Combinations" by Naomi Kuno. It is not even available on Amazon, that's why I have trouble finding a good web link to it.
The book contains 455 color schemes (with detailed RGB  and CMYK codes), organized in 14 chapters each with a different mood. ("Nostalgic and melanchology", "humanistic and natural" to name two). The first edition was published in Japan in 2004, and the English translation is not always perfect, adding to the charm of the book.
Some examples of colors schemes available (exact quotations from the book):
  • 241, Formal Kimono: the color of a patterned formal kimono for a married woman
  • 255, Homely: the cozy warm color of home where a cheerful laugh is always heard
  • 359, Glory and fame: glory and fame never fades away when quality is accompanied. The blue is for glory and the red and gold are for fame.
  • 370, Rococo -1: the elegant rococo period colors of Fragonard's paintings and dresses
  • 111, Ryugu castle: the color of a town of Ryugu castle in a deep sea, where princess Otohime and beautiful fish are said to inhabit, in a legend story of Japanese fantasy.
The colors of 111 below as an example:
I have used this book a number of times as a source of inspiration for finding color schemes for seed-level technology startups that need help developing their very first fund raising presentation. (Other techinques to find a good color scheme can be found here).
Here are the full details of the book in case you would like to try to order it:
Tasteful Color Combinations by Naome Kuno and FORMS Inc. / Color Intelligence Institute Published by Page One Publishing Private Limited, Singapore ISBN 978-981-245-228-3